Saturday, March 3, 2012

Discovered - The first volcanic cave in Brazil



IMAGES: PARANAShop [look sources]


BRAZIL, Parana's state. It is a ancient scientific dogma: at Brazil - volcanoes do not exist for a long time, so long that there's no more traces of some of them that can have existed in the past.

But, now - in the nearby the city of Palmital, (state of Parana, southeast region of the country), a cave, the first cave that - in its origin was a volcano - was discovered (in February, 20 of 2012). Called Stone House, the cave was a volcano in an epoch determined in 130 millions of years ago. It is located there more than 800 meters in altitude relative to sea level.

The cave that is mainly - formed by basalt rock was - possibly, a volcanic conduit-type giant, hitherto - unknown in Brazil - explains the scholar of Geography, State University of the Midwest (Unicentro), Ricardo Geovane Calixto, a one of the responsible for scientific discovery.

The cave that is mainly - formed by basalt rock was - possibly, a volcanic conduit-type giant, hitherto - unknown in Brazil - explains the scholar of Geography of the State University of the Midwest (Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste - Unicentro), Ricardo Geovane Calixto, a one of the responsible for scientific discovery.

Geovane, along with the teachers of the Federal University of Santa Catarina (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina - UFSC), Wellington Barbosa de Silva and Eliza do Belém Tratz, made ​​the speleological and geological reconnaissance of the area. They will start exploration in the coming days. For them, a discovery of this type of cave is a the beginning of a study on the origin of the formation of the called - Third Plateau of the Serra Geral (Serra = geological formation, something like Sierra or mountain range).




The volcanic caves, also known the lava tubes are formed during the eruption of volcanoes. After going through the surface - provoking the forming of rivers of lava - the exposure to the cooling in the surface of earth, results in the solidification of the lava,

By this way, appears a crust that will be becoming increasingly thicker, until the formation of a tunnel made of solid lava. To the extent that decreases the flow of liquid rock mass, the tunnel begins to stay with the configuration of a cavity , resulting in volcanic ducts.

The caves originate from geological processes That may involve a combination of chemical transformations, tectonic, biological and atmospheric. Due to the unique environmental conditions of the caves, this ecosystem has Specialized wildlife to live in dark and without vegetation


The owner of the farm where the "Stone House" cave is located, Basilio Burei, has discovered the geological formation - there 60 years ago, during a persecution of wild pigs. Since then proceeded to call the place of the Stone House.

Mr. Burei tells: "Back then you could see traces of fire inside the cave, trees and plants charred too". Basil, will cede the area to research. According to the Municipal Secretariat of Environment and Tourism of Palmital (Secretaria do Meio Ambiente e Turismo de Palmital), Miguel Burei Sobrinho, some photos of the cave were distributed in social networks and - since then, researchers from more than five states have shown interest in know the place.

This discovery represents a mark for the study of geology in the country and the insertion of Palmital's city in the Brazilian map of the geological science of the country, not only for Brazil's scientists but to foreign researchers too, said the secretary. He also informed that the city intends to partner with universities to increase the incentive for research and tourism in the region.




State Representative (deputy) Rasca Rodrigues (PV - Partido Verde, something like Green political party), requested in 2006 - during his tenure as State Secretary of Environment and Water Resources (Secretaria Meio Ambiente e Recursos Hídricos) - an official study of 260 registered caves in Paraná. The study was conducted by the Speleological Research Group of the State.

Still according Mr. Rasca: This is a heritage that must be preserved. This cave is a proof of Palmital that sustains the knowledge that our state has its geological formation consists of volcanic eruption. In the coming days we will go present a project of law to protect the Parana caves (all of them - the caves of the surface and the underground caves. A specialized company will map the region.

The Secretary adds: The study conducted in 2006 showed that many caves located near urban areas have been damaged by the lack of a conservation policy. If all the caves of Paraná were in the hands of people like Mr. Basil Burei, we would not have this preoccupation.


* NOTE OF the EDITOR OF THIS BLOG: The Secretary could have avoided the last observation. This is wrong. The council has - yes - the obligation of to care of this things, and not stay waiting the citizens, that pay taxes, to make the work of authorities of to preserve the historical and geological heritage of the country.


SOURCES:
Descoberta 1ª caverna originária de vulcão do país.
BEM PARANA, published in 02/03/2012
[http://www.bemparana.com.br/index.php?n=207639&t=descoberta-1-caverna-originaria-de-vulcao-do-pais-]
Primeira caverna originária de vulcão do país é descoberta no Paraná.
PARANAShop, published in 02/03/2012
[http://www.paranashop.com.br/colunas/colunas_n.php?id=33387&op=notas]
Translated by Lygia Cabus


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